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mongoliamore about mongolia

mongolia


  2  definitions  found 
 
  From  WordNet  r  1.6  [wn]: 
 
  Mongolia 
  n  1:  a  landlocked  socialist  republic  in  central  Asia  [syn:  {Mongolia}, 
  {Mongolian  People's  Republic},  {Outer  Mongolia}] 
  2:  a  vast  region  in  Asia  including  the  Mongolian  People's 
  Republic  and  China's  Inner  Mongolia  [syn:  {Mongolia}] 
 
  From  The  CIA  World  Factbook  (1995)  [world95]: 
 
  Mongolia 
 
  Mongolia:Geography 
 
  Location:  Northern  Asia,  north  of  China 
 
  Map  references:  Asia 
 
  Area: 
  total  area:  1.565  million  sq  km 
  land  area:  1.565  million  sq  km 
  comparative  area:  slightly  larger  than  Alaska 
 
  Land  boundaries:  total  8,114  km  China  4,673  km  Russia  3,441  km 
 
  Coastline:  0  km  (landlocked) 
 
  Maritime  claims:  none;  landlocked 
 
  International  disputes:  none 
 
  Climate:  desert;  continental  (large  daily  and  seasonal  temperature 
  ranges) 
 
  Terrain:  vast  semidesert  and  desert  plains;  mountains  in  west  and 
  southwest;  Gobi  Desert  in  southeast 
 
  Natural  resources:  oil,  coal,  copper,  molybdenum,  tungsten, 
  phosphates,  tin,  nickel,  zinc,  wolfram,  fluorspar,  gold 
 
  Land  use: 
  arable  land:  1% 
  permanent  crops:  0% 
  meadows  and  pastures:  79% 
  forest  and  woodland:  10% 
  other:  10% 
 
  Irrigated  land:  770  sq  km  (1989) 
 
  Environment: 
  current  issues:  limited  natural  fresh  water  resources;  policies  of  the 
  former  communist  regime  promoting  rapid  urbanization  and  industrial 
  growth  have  raised  concerns  about  their  negative  effects  on  the 
  environment;  the  burning  of  soft  coal  and  the  concentration  of 
  factories  in  Ulaanbaatar  have  severely  polluted  the  air; 
  deforestation,  overgrazing  the  converting  of  virgin  land  to 
  agricultural  production  have  increased  soil  erosion  from  wind  and 
  rain;  desertification 
  natural  hazards:  duststorms  can  occur  in  the  spring 
  international  agreements:  party  to  -  Biodiversity,  Climate  Change, 
  Environmental  Modification,  Nuclear  Test  Ban;  signed,  but  not  ratified 
  -  Desertification  Law  of  the  Sea 
 
  Note:  landlocked;  strategic  location  between  China  and  Russia 
 
  Mongolia:People 
 
  Population:  2,493,615  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Age  structure: 
  0-14  years:  40%  (female  495,919;  male  511,464) 
  15-64  years:  56%  (female  693,037;  male  693,776) 
  65  years  and  over:  4%  (female  54,991;  male  44,428)  (July  1995  est.) 
 
  Population  growth  rate:  2.58%  (1995  est.) 
 
  Birth  rate:  32.65  births/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Death  rate:  6.82  deaths/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Net  migration  rate:  0  migrant(s)/1,000  population  (1995  est.) 
 
  Infant  mortality  rate:  41.8  deaths/1,000  live  births  (1995  est.) 
 
  Life  expectancy  at  birth: 
  total  population:  66.54  years 
  male:  64.28  years 
  female:  68.92  years  (1995  est.) 
 
  Total  fertility  rate:  4.26  children  born/woman  (1995  est.) 
 
  Nationality: 
  noun:  Mongolian(s) 
  adjective:  Mongolian 
 
  Ethnic  divisions:  Mongol  90%,  Kazakh  4%,  Chinese  2%,  Russian  2%,  other 
  2% 
 
  Religions:  predominantly  Tibetan  Buddhist,  Muslim  4% 
  note:  previously  limited  religious  activity  because  of  Communist 
  regime 
 
  Languages:  Khalkha  Mongol  90%,  Turkic,  Russian,  Chinese 
 
  Literacy:  NA% 
 
  Labor  force:  NA 
  by  occupation:  primarily  herding/agricultural 
  note:  over  half  the  adult  population  is  in  the  labor  force,  including 
  a  large  percentage  of  women;  shortage  of  skilled  labor 
 
  Mongolia:Government 
 
  Names: 
  conventional  long  form:  none 
  conventional  short  form:  Mongolia 
  local  long  form:  none 
  local  short  form:  Mongol  Uls 
  former:  Outer  Mongolia 
 
  Digraph:  MG 
 
  Type:  republic 
 
  Capital:  Ulaanbaatar 
 
  Administrative  divisions:  18  provinces  (aymguud,  singular  -  aymag)  and 
  3  municipalities*  (hotuud,  singular  -  hot);  Arhangay  Bayanhongor 
  Bayan-Olgiy,  Bulgan  Darhan*,  Dornod  Dornogovi  Dundgovi  Dzavhan 
  Erdenet*,  Govi-Altay,  Hentiy  Hovd,  Hovsgol  Omnogovi  Ovorhangay 
  Selenge,  Suhbaatar  Tov,  Ulaanbaatar*,  Uvs 
 
  Independence:  13  March  1921  (from  China) 
 
  National  holiday:  National  Day  11  July  (1921) 
 
  Constitution:  adopted  13  January  1992 
 
  Legal  system:  blend  of  Russian,  Chinese,  and  Turkish  systems  of  law; 
  no  constitutional  provision  for  judicial  review  of  legislative  acts 
  has  not  accepted  compulsory  ICJ  jurisdiction 
 
  Suffrage:  18  years  of  age;  universal 
 
  Executive  branch: 
  chief  of  state:  President  Punsalmaagiyn  OCHIRBAT  (since  3  September 
  1990);  election  last  held  6  June  1993  (next  to  be  held  NA  1997); 
  results  -  Punsalmaagiyn  OCHIRBAT  (MNDP  and  MSDP)  elected  directly  with 
  57.8%  of  the  vote;  other  candidate  Lodongiyn  TUDEV  (MPRP) 
  head  of  government:  Prime  Minister  Putsagiyn  JASRAY  (since  3  August 
  1992);  Deputy  Prime  Ministers  Lhamsuren  ENEBISH  and  Choijilsurengiyn 
  PUREVDORJ  (since  NA) 
  cabinet:  Cabinet;  appointed  by  the  Great  Hural 
 
  Legislative  branch:  unicameral 
  State  Great  Hural:  elections  held  for  the  first  time  28  June  1992 
  (next  to  be  held  NA);  results  -  percent  of  vote  by  party  NA  seats  - 
  (76  total)  MPRP  71,  United  Party  of  Mongolia  4,  MSDP  1 
  note:  the  People's  Small  Hural  no  longer  exists 
 
  Judicial  branch:  Supreme  Court  serves  as  appeals  court  for  people's 
  and  provincial  courts,  but  to  date  rarely  overturns  verdicts  of  lower 
  courts 
 
  Political  parties  and  leaders:  Mongolian  People's  Revolutionary  Party 
  (MPRP),  Budragchagiin  DASH-YONDON,  secretary  general;  Mongolian 
  National  Democratic  Party  (MNDP),  D.  GANBOLD  chairman;  Mongolian 
  Social  Democratic  Party  (MSDP),  B.  BATBAYAR  chairman;  United  Party  of 
  Mongolia,  leader  NA 
  note:  opposition  parties  were  legalized  in  May  1990 
 
  Member  of:  AsDB  CCC,  ESCAP,  FAO,  G-77,  IAEA,  IBRD,  ICAO,  ICRM,  IDA, 
  IFAD,  IFC,  IFRCS  ILO,  IMF,  INTELSAT  (nonsignatory  user),  INTERPOL, 
  IOC,  ISO,  ITU,  NAM  (observer),  UN  UNCTAD  UNESCO,  UNIDO  UPU,  WFTU 
  WHO  WIPO,  WMO,  WTO 
 
  Diplomatic  representation  in  US: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Luvsandorj  DAWAAGIW 
  chancery:  2833  M  Street  NW  Washington,  DC  20007 
  telephone:  [1]  (202)  333-7117 
  FAX:  [1]  (202)  298-9227 
  consulate(s)  general:  New  York 
 
  US  diplomatic  representation: 
  chief  of  mission:  Ambassador  Donald  C.  JOHNSON 
  embassy:  address  NA  Ulaanbaatar 
  mailing  address:  c/o  American  Embassy  Beijing,  Micro  Region  11,  Big 
  Ring  Road;  PSC  461,  Box  300,  FPO  AP  96521-0002 
  telephone:  [976]  (1)  329095,  329606 
  FAX:  [976]  (1)  320776 
 
  Flag:  three  equal,  vertical  bands  of  red  (hoist  side),  blue,  and  red, 
  centered  on  the  hoist-side  red  band  in  yellow  is  the  national  emblem 
  ("soyombo"  -  a  columnar  arrangement  of  abstract  and  geometric 
  representation  for  fire,  sun,  moon,  earth,  water,  and  the  yin-yang 
  symbol) 
 
  Economy 
 
  Overview:  Mongolia's  severe  climate,  scattered  population,  and  wide 
  expanses  of  unproductive  land  have  constrained  economic  development. 
  Economic  activity  traditionally  has  been  based  on  agriculture  and  the 
  breeding  of  livestock.  In  past  years  extensive  mineral  resources  had 
  been  developed  with  Soviet  support;  total  Soviet  assistance  at  its 
  height  amounted  to  30%  of  GDP.  The  mining  and  processing  of  coal, 
  copper,  molybdenum,  tin,  tungsten,  and  gold  account  for  a  large  part 
  of  industrial  production.  Timber  and  fishing  are  also  important 
  sectors.  The  Mongolian  leadership  has  been  gradually  making  the 
  transition  from  Soviet-style  central  planning  to  a  market  economy 
  through  privatization  and  price  reform,  and  is  soliciting  support  from 
  international  financial  agencies  and  foreign  investors.  The  economy, 
  however,  has  still  not  recovered  from  the  loss  of  Soviet  aid,  and  the 
  country  continues  to  suffer  substantial  economic  hardships,  with 
  one-fourth  of  the  population  below  the  poverty  line 
 
  National  product:  GDP  -  purchasing  power  parity  -  $4.4  billion  (1994 
  est.) 
 
  National  product  real  growth  rate:  2.5%  (1994  est.) 
 
  National  product  per  capita:  $1,800  (1994  est.) 
 
  Inflation  rate  (consumer  prices):  70%  (1994  est.) 
 
  Unemployment  rate:  15%  (1991  est.) 
 
  Budget: 
  revenues:  $NA 
  expenditures:  $NA,  including  capital  expenditures  of  $NA  (1991  est.) 
  note:  deficit  of  $67  million 
 
  Exports:  $360  million  (f.o.b.,  1993  est.) 
  commodities:  copper,  livestock,  animal  products,  cashmere,  wool, 
  hides,  fluorspar,  other  nonferrous  metals 
  partners:  former  CMEA  countries  62%,  China  17%,  EC  8%  (1992) 
 
  Imports:  $361  million  (f.o.b.,  1993  est.) 
  commodities:  machinery  and  equipment,  fuels,  food  products,  industrial 
  consumer  goods,  chemicals,  building  materials,  sugar,  tea 
  partners:  USSR  75%,  Austria  5%,  China  5%  (1991) 
 
  External  debt:  $NA 
 
  Industrial  production:  growth  rate  -15%  (1992  est.);  accounts  for 
  about  42%  of  GDP 
 
  Electricity: 
  capacity:  900,000  kW 
  production:  3.1  billion  kWh 
  consumption  per  capita:  1,267  kWh  (1993) 
 
  Industries:  copper,  processing  of  animal  products,  building  materials, 
  food  and  beverage,  mining  (particularly  coal) 
 
  Agriculture:  accounts  for  about  35%  of  GDP  and  provides  livelihood  for 
  about  50%  of  the  population;  livestock  raising  predominates  (primarily 
  sheep  and  goats,  but  also  cattle,  camels,  and  horses);  crops  -  wheat, 
  barley,  potatoes,  forage 
 
  Economic  aid:  NA 
 
  Currency:  1  tughrik  (Tug)  =  100  mongos 
 
  Exchange  rates:  tughriks  (Tug)  per  US$1  -  415.34  (January  1995), 
  412.72  (1994),  42.56  (1992),  9.52  (1991),  5.63  (1990) 
  note:  the  exchange  rate  40  tughriks  =  1US$  was  introduced  June  1991 
  and  was  in  force  to  the  end  of  1992;  beginning  27  May  1993  the 
  exchange  rate  is  the  midpoint  of  the  average  buying  and  selling  rates 
  that  are  freely  determined  on  the  basis  of  market  transactions  between 
  commercial  banks  and  the  nonbank  public 
 
  Fiscal  year:  calendar  year 
 
  Mongolia:Transportation 
 
  Railroads: 
  total:  1,750  km 
  broad  gauge:  1,750  km  1.524-m  gauge  (1988) 
 
  Highways: 
  total:  46,700  km 
  paved:  1,000  km 
  unpaved:  45,700  km  (1988) 
 
  Inland  waterways:  397  km  of  principal  routes  (1988) 
 
  Ports:  none 
 
  Airports: 
  total:  34 
  with  paved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  7 
  with  paved  runways  under  914  m:  1 
  with  unpaved  runways  over  3,047  m:  3 
  with  unpaved  runways  2,438  to  3,047  m:  5 
  with  unpaved  runways  1,524  to  2,438  m:  10 
  with  unpaved  runways  914  to  1,523  m:  3 
  with  unpaved  runways  under  914  m:  5 
 
  Mongolia:Communications 
 
  Telephone  system:  63,000  telephones  (1989) 
  local:  NA 
  intercity:  NA 
  international:  at  least  1  satellite  earth  station 
 
  Radio: 
  broadcast  stations:  AM  12,  FM  1,  shortwave  0 
  radios:  220,000 
 
  Television: 
  broadcast  stations:  1  (provincial  repeaters  -  18) 
  televisions:  120,000 
 
  Mongolia:Defense  Forces 
 
  Branches:  Mongolian  People's  Army  (includes  Internal  Security  Forces 
  and  Frontier  Guards),  Air  Force 
 
  Manpower  availability:  males  age  15-49  605,633;  males  fit  for  military 
  service  394,433;  males  reach  military  age  (18)  annually  25,862  (1995 
  est.) 
 
  Defense  expenditures:  exchange  rate  conversion  -  $22.8  million,  1%  of 
  GDP  (1992) 
 
 
 




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